Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
2017-08-28T06:33:43Z (4 weeks ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v2 v3  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
     8Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     9
     10== Creating an Environment
     11
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     13{{{#!sh
    914$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1015}}}
    1116
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1518
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system. Also, it seems that project names
    21 with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).''
     19=== Useful Tips
    2220
    23 == Database Connection Strings ==
     21 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    2422
    25 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    26 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    27 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    28 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    29 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    30 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     23 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     24 
     25 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using the optional arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    3126
    32 === Embedded SQLite Connection String ===
    33 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     27 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     28
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-plugins_dir-option shared plugins directory] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not enabled by default, in contrast to plugins in the environment `plugins` directory. Hence, if they need to create extra tables, for example, the tables will not be created during environment creation and you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by explicitly enabling the plugin in the inherited configuration, or in a configuration file using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
     37
     38== Database Connection Strings
     39
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     41
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be [http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/ URL encoded].
     43{{{#!sh
     44$ python -c "import urllib; print urllib.quote('password@:/123', '')"
     45password%40%3A%2F123
     46}}}
     47
     48=== SQLite Connection String
     49
     50The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3451{{{
    3552sqlite:db/trac.db
    3653}}}
     54where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3755
    38 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    39 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    40 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    41 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    42 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     56=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     57
     58The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4359{{{
    4460postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4561}}}
    46 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    4762
    48 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     63If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    4964{{{
    5065postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5166}}}
    5267
    53 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    54 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     68On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5569{{{
    5670postgres://user:password@/database
    5771}}}
     72
    5873or a specific one:
    5974{{{
     
    6176}}}
    6277
    63 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    64 `trac-admin initenv`.
    65 
    6678See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    67 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    68 {{{
    69 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    70 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    71 }}}
    72 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    73 
    74 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    75 {{{
    76 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    77 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     79Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     80{{{#!sh
     81$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     82$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    7883}}}
    7984
    80 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     85When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the `tracuser`. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode.
     86
     87Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     88{{{#!sh
     89$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     90$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     91}}}
     92
     93Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8194{{{
    8295postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    8396}}}
    8497
    85 === MySQL Connection String ===
     98=== MySQL Connection String
    8699
    87 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    88 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    89 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    90 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     100The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    91101{{{
    92102mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    93103}}}
    94104
    95 == Source Code Repository ==
     105== Source Code Repository
    96106
    97 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    98 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
     107A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    99108
    100 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    101 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
     109There are several ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    102110
    103 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    104 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    105 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    106 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     111== Directory Structure
    107112
    108 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
    109 {{{
    110 [trac]
    111 repository_type = svn
    112 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    113 }}}
    114 
    115 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    116 {{{
    117 [trac]
    118 repository_type = svn
    119 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    120 }}}
    121 
    122 == Directory Structure ==
    123 
    124 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     113An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    125114
    126115 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    127  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    128  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     116 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     117 * `files`
     118  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    129119 * `conf`
    130    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     120  * `trac.ini` - Main [TracIni configuration file].
    131121 * `db`
    132    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    133  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    134  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    135  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs, since [milestone:0.10])
    136  * `templates` - Custom ClearSilver environment-specific templates. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    137    * `site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.
    138    * `site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.
    139    * `site_header.cs` - Custom page header.
    140  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    141    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    142  * `wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [WikiMacros Wiki macros]. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    143 
    144   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    145 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    146 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     122  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     123 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in templates using the path `/chrome/site/...`.
     124 * `log` - Default directory for log files when `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     125 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     126 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     127  * `site.html` - Method to [TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance customize] the site header, footer, and style.
    147128
    148129----
    149 See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
     130See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni